Today, flower growers are presented with a large selection of crops that can be grown at home. The art of growing a replica of a tree in miniature “bonsai” stands out. This can be done by any florist using the seeds of the chosen crops and, of course, with the proper care of the plant.
Growing techniques and styles
Origin of this art from China, for the first time such work was done by order of the emperor, who wished to recreate the miniatures of his empire not only in the form of buildings, but also trees. According to the religious beliefs of Buddhists, a master who could create small copies of plant crops was equated with a deity. Today, a number of techniques and styles are used, guided by which masters work to create bonsai. The main are considered 2 growing techniques: traditional and special.
It, in turn, allows gardeners to plant crops in the following styles:
- straight trunk;
- informal straight trunk;
- A style involving two trunks;
- Cascade and semi-cascade;
- bonsai with a protruding rhizome;
- oblique and literary;
- group composition;
- broom style.
Sprouting crops, following the principles of the special technique, is preferred by true connoisseurs and professionals who specialize in the creation of miniature replicas of plants. The styles used in this direction can be as follows:
forest form bonsai;
growing on a rock and in the wind.
What kind of tree seeds will work?
Japanese compositions with dwarf crops can be created with almost any tree plant that will suit the taste of the customer or the gardener himself. Since bonsai have been grown all over the world for quite a long time, there is a whole list of the most sought-after crops, the cultivation of which in miniature allows you to create beautiful compositions.
Sprouting bonsai from seeds at home will work if you use in the composition planting material from conifers, such as spruce, pine, including Pinus parviflora, cypress. Such crops in dwarf form will be able to fit organically into any interior. For some crops there are recommendations for their size:
- Acacia, wisteria, pine – 100-130 centimeters;
- linden, ash, beech and oak 60-100 centimeters;
- maple, birch, hazel – 20-30 centimeters;
- juniper, spruce, and willow – 10-20 centimeters.
Planting material is recommended to buy only in specialized stores or nurseries, so that the forthcoming work will bring the desired result. However, the purchase of seeds is not the only option to create bonsai with their own hands. Very often flower growers collect seeds in parks or botanical gardens, where there are many beautiful and healthy specimens of plants.
Processing and germination
Before rooting tree seeds, a number of preparatory measures should be carried out with purchased or collected by hand material. You can germinate the culture only after the mandatory treatment. The optimum time for rooting the seeds will be summer, which means that preparations for planting should be done in advance in spring or autumn. To plant healthy plants, experienced florists subject the seeds to stratification. This method allows you to recreate a winter environment for the seeds, which will harden the young crops. There are several options for stratifying planting material.
This treatment will be needed for planting material that needs to mature before rooting. This applies to thuja, spruce and pine. The essence of the method is to soak copies in water at room temperature, with subsequent incubation in the refrigerator. Such manipulations artificially create a sharp temperature difference, which often occurs in natural conditions.
A more gentle treatment, the purpose of which is considered the awakening of plants. To make the seeds sprout faster, they are placed for a while in a bowl of warm water or in a humid environment.
Combined method of treatment
A method of work necessary for the planting material of crops that stand out for their slow growth rate of seedlings. This applies to sakura, maple and cedar. In this case, the florist will need to place the seeds alternately in the heat, and then – in the cold. In the latter case, they must necessarily be kept in warm liquid before this.
In addition to stratification, the seeds also undergo an obligatory disinfection procedure to reduce the risk of crop diseases of fungal diseases. Most often manganese solution is used to work in this case. Disinfection can last from 5 to 15 days.
After the material has been treated and decontaminated, it is placed in a humid microclimate in order to soften the upper shell of the grains. For this purpose, wet sand is used, in which the grains are deepened. A container with them should be covered with polyethylene, leaving the seeds in such a state in a warm place protected from light for 2-3 months. Before rooting the seeds, take them out of the sand, keeping them in water at room temperature for 2-3 days.
Grown from seeds bonsai can take several years, however, the key to obtaining a beautiful and healthy culture will be the correct planting. The work of rooting the culture in a pot is best done in the summer months, as a rule, the planting material, rooted before this in the sand, will already be fully prepared for transplanting. As practice shows, in summer the seeds will start to form roots much faster, so the culture will develop faster.
The pot is filled with prepared soil, you should not fill the container to the top. It is necessary to leave about 3 centimeters, at this level the treated seeds are laid, which should be well pressed with a piece of wood. Then they are covered with the remaining soil, which is recommended to be well tamped. Some flower growers additionally cover the pot with polyethylene, making a few holes in it for air flow.
The work concerning the care of miniature crops is reduced to regular soil moistening and airing, the soil in the pot should always be moist. To avoid root rotting, which is quite a common problem due to the small size of the pot, florists water in several ways. In the first case, it can be irrigation of the culture with water. For this purpose, it is recommended to use rainwater, which should stand for 2-3 days before watering. Humidify the tree from a special kettle. The second option is to immerse the pot in a large-sized container filled with water. To stay in it the culture should be about 2-3 minutes.
The pot should stand in a shady place at an air temperature of about +16 C until the emergence of shoots. With the emergence of sprouts plants to grow will need sunlight, then it is recommended to maintain a room temperature for bonsai. When the sprouts are 2-3 months old, the flower grower will need to perform tree picking. This is necessary to stimulate the crops for further growth and development.
Care for bonsai also involves additional feeding of plants, especially in the summer. For this purpose, it is recommended to use complex store compounds, adding them to the pot in small portions.
Phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen will be very important for the health and growth of miniature cultures. The latter is necessary for the productive growth of green mass. Phosphorus is responsible for growth and cell division of the plant, including the root, it is also beneficial to the immunity of crops. Potassium will help plants to fight bacteria and microorganisms, in addition, the trace element will contribute to the flowering of plants. Placing a pot with a crop indoors, you should avoid direct sunlight on young trees. Ultraviolet light can provoke a burn and lead to the death of the plant.
The main task of a florist in the process of growing miniature trees is the process of re-rooting. The essence of this responsible work is to shorten the rootstock by two-thirds. To activate the growth of the rootstock, some crops are given a hormonal injection. As a rule, the plant will be ready for such manipulations at the age of 3 months. Shaping of the culture begins when the tree reaches a few years of age.